Nihon Superior Centre
for the Manufacture of Electronic Materials

 

Engagement Highlights

2016

1. Research collaborations with UniMAP (University of Malaysia Perilis)

(Dr. Kazuhiro Nogita, Director)

The University of Queensland (UQ) in the field of electronic materials and geopolymers extended research relations with Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP) by way of its Centre of Excellence Geopolymer & Green Technology (CEGeoGTech) through a memorandum of understanding (MoU) on 9th April 2015. The collaboration involves the Faculty of Engineering, Architecture and Information Technology (EAIT) UQ and CEGeoGTech which specialising in research collaborations, and staff and student placements in both universities.

As a guest professor, Dr Nogita accepted a co-supervisor role for one PhD student (Mr IzrulIzwan Ramli) with Dr Arif Salleh, who obtained his PhD at UQ under NS CMEM and is currently a senior lecturer at UniMAP. Dr Nogita delivered an invited lecture titled “Advanced Materials Characterisation Technique: Theory and Applications” at UniMAP on 21st October 2016 and met the new Vice Chancellor of UniMAP, Prof. Zul Azhar Zahid Jamal to discuss further research collaborations between UQ and UniMAP.

UniMAP sent new PhD student (Ms Flora Somidin) to NS CMEM from early January 2016.

Research collaboration meeting on 21st Oct 2016 among UQ, UniMAP and Nihon Superior Malaysia. From left, Dr Salleh (Senior Lecturer, UniMAP), Prof. Zul Azhar Zahid Jamal (VC, UniMAP), Mr Tetsuro Nishimura (President, Nihon Superior), Mr Wayne NG (Technical, Nihon Superior Asia), A/Prof. Kazuhiro Nogita (Director of NS CMEM, UQ), and Mr Kozutsumi (MD, Nihon Superior Malaysia).

2. UQ-KU Project and research collaborations with KU (Kyushu University)

(Dr. Kazuhiro Nogita, Project Manager)

To increase the practical collaboration activities between the University of Queensland (UQ) and Kyushu University (KU), we have established the “UQ-KU Project” on 16th December 2015. The main target of this project is to facilitate collaborative activities through the coordinators based at UQ and KU. The appointed coordinators are Prof. Syo Matsumura of the Graduate school of Engineering at KU and Assoc. Prof. Kazuhiro Nogita of the School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering at UQ, who is an alumnus of KU. The project will provide an avenue for: (1) academic exchange (undergraduate and graduate student exchange, researcher exchange, joint research publications and presentations); (2) education opportunities (lectures, education projects, and industry-university collaborations); (3) support services (communications and public affairs, exchange student assistance).

The Progress 100 Project is headed by Professor Masato Wakayama, Trustee and Vice President of Kyushu University (KU) and the mission of the Project is to build upon the research and strengths of KU by inviting top researchers from around the world to KU. The international collaborative research programs and joint publications that will be a direct result of Kyushu University World Premier International Researcher Invitation Program “Progress 100 Project”, in addition to undergraduate and post graduate students having direct access to some of the best researchers in the world will greatly enhance the ranking and reputation of Kyushu University. As part of the Progress 100 Project, Professor Syo Matsumura and Professor Chihaya Adachi hosted four distinguished research academics from the University of Queensland (UQ) in December of 2016. Professor Jin Zou is Chair in Nanoscience at UQ; Associate Professor Kazuhiro Nogita is researcher in the School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering at UQ and Dr Ebinazar Namdas and Dr Shih-Chun Lo are researchers in the UQ Centre for Organic Photonics & Electronics (COPE). Dr Lo and Dr Namdas, (along with Professor Paul Burn, the Head of COPE) in conjunction with Professor Chihaya Adachi from KU were recently awarded a prestigious Australian Research Council Discovery Grant for a collaborative research project to develop new materials for organic light emitting diodes.

Kyushu University Progress 100 Project Participants. From left to right: A/Prof Kazuhiro Nogita (UQ); Dr Ebinazar Namdas (UQ); Dr Shih-Chun Lo (UQ); Prof Jin Zou (UQ); Prof Masato Wakayama (KU); Prof Chihaya Adachi (KU) and Prof Syo Matsumura (KU).

3. EPITS2017 (The Electronic Packaging Interconnect Technology Symposium 2017)(scheduled on 1st and 2nd November 2017)

(Dr. Kazuhiro Nogita, Chair)

Dr Nogita (UQ) will chair/organise EPITS2017 with UniMAP, Kyushu University and MJIIT

Call For Papers

Electronic Packaging Interconnect Technology Symposium 2017 (EPITS 2017)

1st - 2nd November 2017, Fukuoka, Japan

Website: http://epits15.com/

In the extensive technology era, the industry has been pushing the limits in both design and manufacturing areas. Small scale microelectronics technologies those in the micro and nanoscale area are the most exciting developments. Researchers working at or near the molecular level have recently made significant breakthroughs that will enable companies to create entirely new products, applications, and highly efficient manufacturing techniques.

These applications products required excellent performance that allowed to withstand in harsh environments which is thermal stresses, vibration and shock. Therefore, its has been a great deal of research and innovation concerning robust design and the selection of novel materials. Some of the most spectacular developments in electronics packaging are now beginning to take shape.

The Electronic Packaging Interconnect Technology Symposium, (EPITS 2017) is bringing together packaging experts in these critical areas and others to sharing and exchange the ideas in electronics technology. Don’t miss your chance to get up to speed on today’s most important topics in packaging, all in one place on one day.

Topics of interest for submission include, but are not limited to:

  1. Challenges in implementing the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (ROHS).
  2. Emerging interconnect materials and technologies.
  3. Non-solder interconnect materials at chip and package levels.
  4. Fundamental materials behavior for electronic packaging materials.
  5. Electromigration, thermomigration, stress-migration and mechanical effects.
  6. Advanced characterization methods as applied to electronic packaging technology.
  7. Whisker growth in tin, tin-based alloys and other metallic systems related to electronic packaging materials.
  8. Developments in high temperature Pb-free solders and associated interconnects for automotive and power electronics.

Publication

Selected papers from Electronic Packaging Interconnect Technology Symposium (EPITS) 2015 will be published in SCOPUS Cited Journal (Open Access). Publication sent for index in ISI-Web of Science (Conference Proceeding Citation Index).

Important Dates

  1. Full Paper Deadline: 15 September 2017
  2. Acceptance Notification: 30 September 2017
  3. Camera-ready Paper Deadline: 1 October 2017

Contact Us

For further information of the Symposium, please email your enquiry to secretariat@epits15.com or

Assoc. Prof. Kazuhiro Nogita (k.nogita@uq.edu.au)

Dr. Mohd Arif Anuar Bin Mohd Salleh (arifanuar@unimap.edu.my)

EPITS2015 (http://epits15.com/)

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Presentations and Highlights

2016

1. Invited Speaker, “The University of Queensland – Kyushu University Oceania Project (UQ-KU Project)”, MAJIT seminar, on 2nd September 2016 at The University of Queensland.

(Dr. Kazuhiro Nogita, Director)

Associate Professor Kazuhiro Nogita had the privilege of addressing students enrolled in the Master of Arts in Japanese Interpreting and Translation (MAJIT). The MAJIT programme provides high levels of competence and training in English and Japanese languages as well as theoretical and practical skills in translation and interpreting. The topic of Associate Professor Nogita’s MAJIT seminar was on the UQ-KU Project. This included was how the project came into being and the strengths of both Universities. In addition, Associate Professor Nogita discussed briefly some comparisons between Kyushu University and the University of Queensland, in particular the number of students and size of the international student cohort for each university.

Attendees at the UQ-KU Project seminar delivered by Associate Professor Nogita for UQ MAJIT students.

2. Best first year PhD student presentation, UQ-EAIT Postgraduate conference, S. Mehreen, “Development of Sn-Cu alloys for High Temperature Soldering Applications”, 7th June 2016. AND People’s Choice Award at the 2016 UQ SoMME 3 Minute Thesis Competition, 1st July 2016.

(Ms. Syeda Mehreen, PhD student)

Ms. Syeda Mehreen was awarded the best first year PhD student presentation titled “Development of Sn-Cu alloys for High Temperature Soldering Applications”, at UQ-EAIT Postgraduate Conference on 7th June 2016. She also was awarded the prize for People’s Choice Award titled “Lead-free solders for a sustainable future” at the 2016 UQ SoMME 3 Minute Thesis Competition in Mechanical and Mining Engineering. Syeda was presenting work from her PhD research being conducted as part the Nihon Superior research project under the supervision of Chief Investigator, Associate Professor, Kazuhiro.

Ms. Syeda Mehreen (left) and Prof. David Mee, head of school (right).

3. ACMM24 (Australian Conference on Microscopy & Microanalysis) in Melbourne

(Dr Nogita, Mr Salleh, Ms Smith)

Since 1968, the Australian Conference on Microscopy and Microanalysis (ACMM) has grown to become one of the main microscopy conferences in the Southern Hemisphere. The conference in 2016 had showcased advances in instrumentation and techniques, and promises an exciting scientific program centered around multidisciplinary approaches.

The 24th Australian Conference on Microscopy and Microanalysis (ACMM24) was held in Melbourne from 31 January to 4 February, 2016. From NS CMEM, Dr Nogita, Mr Salleh, Ms Smith had attended/ presented at the conference. The title of their papers presented are as follows:

  1. K. Nogita, X. Q. Tran, S. D. McDonald, S. Matsumura, “Hydrogen release mechanisms in bulk MgH2 by ultra-high voltage transmission electron microscopies”, 24th Australian Conference on Microscopy and Microanalysis (ACMM24), Melbourne, Australia, 31st January to 4th of February 2016.
  2. M.A.A. Mohd Salleh, J.W Xian, C. M. Gourlay, H. Yasuda, S. D. McDonald and K. Nogita, “In-situ synchrotron real-time imaging of soldering: Experiment methods and post experiment analysis”, 24th Australian Conference on Microscopy and Microanalysis (ACMM24), Melbourne, Australia, 31st January to 4th of February 2016.
  3. K. Nogita, M. Nave, S. Smith, J. Read, Y. Wu, S. D. McDonald, “EBSD measurements of anisotropic residual stress and strain distributions in tin-based solder alloys”, 24th Australian Conference on Microscopy and Microanalysis (ACMM24), Melbourne, Australia, 31st January to 4th of February 2016.

At our poster, from left Dr Nave (Deakin University, previous UQ PhD graduate), Dr Salleh (UQ), Ms Smith (UQ) and A/Prof Nogita (UQ).

4. TMS2016 in Nashville, USA

(Dr Nogita, Mr Salleh)

Dr Nogita and Mr Salleh had delivered their paper at TMS2016 annual meeting with Nihon Superior and Imperial College London in Nashville in Feb 2016.

The title of their papers presented are as follows:

  1. S. Belyakov, M. A. A. Mohd Salleh, T. Nishimura, K. Sweatman, K. Nogita, C. M. Gourlay, “Microstructure and properties of BGA joints soldered with Sn-Cu-Ni-Bi”, Abstract of 2016 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition, Nashville, TN, US, 14-18 February (2016) pp. 154.
  2. M. A. A. Mohd Salleh, J. Read, Z. I. Abdullah, S. D. McDonald, K. Nogita, “Effects of trace addition of phosphorus in Sn-Cu-Ni solders”, Abstract of 2016 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition, Nashville, TN, US, 14-18 February (2016) pp. 154.
  3. S. Smith, Y. Wu, M. A. A. Mohd Salleh, C. M. Gourlay, S. Belyakov, S. D. McDonald, K. Nogita, “Effect of Bi on mechanical properties and CTE of Pb-free solders”, Abstract of 2016 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition, Nashville, TN, US, 14-18 February (2016) pp. 154.
  4. M. A. A. Mohd Salleh, S. D. McDonald, H. Yasuda, K. Nogita, “Development of a Microwave Sintered TiO2 Reinforced Sn-0.7wt%Cu-0.05wt%Ni Solder Alloy”, Abstract of 2016 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition, Nashville, TN, US, 14-18 February (2016) pp. 154.
  5. M. A. A. Mohd Salleh, C. M. Gourlay, H. Yasuda, A. Sugiyama, T. Nagira, S. D. McDonald, K. Nogita, “Influence of surface finish on the formation of intermetallic compounds during reflow soldering: In-situ real-time observations”, Abstract of 2016 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition, Nashville, TN, US, 14-18 February (2016) pp. 10.
  6. S. Belyakov, M.A.A. Mohd Salleh, T. Nishimura, K. Sweatman, K. Nogita, C. M. Gourlay, “Effects of Bi on microstructure formation and properties of Sn-Cu-Bi based solders”, Abstract of 2016 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition, Nashville, TN, US, 14-18 February (2016) pp. 73.
  7. K. Nogita, C. M. Gourlay, M.A.A. Mohd Salleh, G. Zeng, Y. Wu, S. D. McDonald, “New concept solders/interconnects for 3D packaging”, Abstract of 2016 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition, Nashville, TN, US, 14-18 February (2016) pp. 94.
  8. T. Nishimura, M.A.A. Mohd Salleh, G. Zeng, K. Sweatman, S. D. McDonald and K. Nogita, “Enhanced stabilization of η Cu6Sn5 in Pb-free solder joints”, Abstract of 2016 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition, Nashville, TN, US, 14-18 February (2016) pp. 132.

Mr Arif Salleh presents his poster at TMS2016. 

 

2015

1. Invited Speaker, “Case study of University R&D between Australia and Japan”, WORKSHOP – Japan-Australia Science and Innovation Collaboration, Australian Embassy, Tokyo, Japan, 12th May (2015).

(Dr. Kazuhiro Nogita, Director)

Japan and Australia share a long history of high-quality collaborative scientific research, with the amount of researcher-led collaboration doubling over the last decade. Both the Australian and Japanese governments provide support for researcher exchange and collaboration, for example through the Emerging Research Leaders Exchange Program (ERLEP), administered in Australia by the Academy for Technological Sciences and Engineering (ATSE). Both governments also share a commitment to enhancing collaboration between researchers and industry. The Australian Embassy in Tokyo is partnering with ATSE to host an initial workshop to discuss opportunities for building on existing programs to support stronger research and industry collaboration between Japan and Australia. ATSE has received Australian Government funding to pilot a new kind of exchange program in 2015-16, designed to support closer links between researchers and industry in Japan and Australia. This workshop will inform the further development of that program.

The objectives for the workshop are to:

  • share information about existing programs and government priorities
  • provide an opportunity for networking
  • share case studies of successful collaboration between researchers and companies in both countries
  • provide suggestions and identify potential projects and programs for future collaboration.

Dr Nogita was invited to participate in this workshop and delivered a case study as the Director of NS CMEM.

At workshop reception. From left, Mr Tetsuro Nishimura (president of Nihon Superior), Mr Bruce Millar (Australian Ambassador to Japan), and Dr Kazuhiro Nogita.

2. Best 1st Year Presentation in Mechanical and Mining Engineering, “Mechanisms of surface stability in Al-Zn coated steel”, UQ-EAIT Engineering Postgraduate Research Conference, 10th June 2015.

(Mr. Matthew Gear, PhD student)

Matt Gear who was one of 113 participants in the University of Queensland Engineering Architecture and IT Faculty Conference for Postgraduate Students, was awarded the prize for Best 1st Year Presentation in Mechanical and Mining Engineering. Matt was presenting work from his PhD research being conducted as part the ARC Steel Research Hub’s Innovative Coating Technologies Program under the supervision of Chief Investigator, Associate Professor, Kazuhiro Nogita. UQ’s annual Postgraduate Student Conference was established seven years ago. Students are invited to present their research findings to academics, industry partners and their peers. In addition to providing a forum for students to share and demonstrate their efforts, the conferences give students critical experience in communicating their research, allowing them to build confidence in this important skill. Students are judged by a panel of UQ academics, with prizes awarded at the end of the event in a number of different categories.

Dr Kazuhiro Nogita (left) and Mr Matthew Gear (right) at the reception of the UQ-EAIT Engineering Postgraduate Research Conference.

3. Best Burster Award (PhDs 10 mins presentation) “Mechanisms of surface stability in Al-Zn coated steel”, 1st Annual ARC Steel Research Hub Symposium, 12th November 2015.

(Mr. Matthew Gear, PhD student)

Running over two days this first annual Symposium presented the first opportunity to bring all hub members – academics, including early career researchers, and industry personnel – together to meet, share information and collaborate. Over 60 people attended the Symposium, including almost 20 members from our Industry Partners: ASI, Cox Architecture, Bisalloy Steels, Lysaght and BlueScope. The two day Programme included presentations from Program Leaders, Research Fellows, PhD candidates and Sean Wong, Technology and Innovation Manager for BlueScope Australia.

Initial feedback from attendees indicates that the opportunity to get a feel for the scope and breadth of research underway within the Hub was an extremely beneficial outcome of the symposium – this gave individuals, and particularly those newly recruited into the Hub, the ability to understand their place within the broader program, and to interact and network with other members. Each PhD candidate submitted posters of their work for display. The quality was excellent.

Day two concluded with the presentation of a number of awards and we extend our congratulations to the following recipients:

  • Ms Brianna Knowles (UOW) - Best Poster “Fungal Growth: Foul Play for Roofs”
  • Mr Matthew Gear (UQ) - Best Burster (PhDs 10 mins presentation) “Mechanisms of surface stability in Al-Zn coated steel”
  • Dr Matthew Penna (RMIT) - Best Presentation “Nanoscale Engineering of Responsive Surfaces for Contamination Resistance”

From UQ, Prof. StJohn, A/Prof. Nogita, Dr. Qu and Mr Gear were participants in the symposium.

Participants of 1st Annual ARC Steel Research Hub Symposium

4. Invited Speaker, “Case study of University-Industry R&D between Australia and Japan”, Japan-Australia University Symposium 2015, University of Sydney, 24th November 2015.

(Dr. Kazuhiro Nogita, Director)

“Japan-Australia University Symposium Towards Successful Partnerships: Learning from Experiences” on November 24th in Sydney, Australia. The symposium aims to promote and strengthen the university partnerships between Japan and Australia, discussing on the areas of education, research and governance. Dr Nogita was invited to participate in this symposium and delivered a case study as the Director of NS CMEM.

http://www.jpf.org.au/Japan-Australia%20University%20Symposium%20in%20Sydney%202015_flyer.pdf

 

2014

1. Invited Lecture, “Developments in high reliability lead-free solders by NS CMEM”, 43rd Internepcon Japan Technical Conference, Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo, Japan, 15th to 17th January (2014) INJ-1.

(Dr Kazuhiro Nogita, Director)

INTERNEPCON JAPAN highlights the latest Manufacturing and SMT technologies that enable greater functionality and higher performance of electronics products.  INTERNEPCON JAPAN has established itself as Asia's LARGEST electronics trade show for business meetings and technical consultations, attracting unrivalled number of exhibitors/visitors from electronics set manufacturers, semiconductor manufacturers and automotive/device manufacturers from Japan and abroad. Dr Nogita had delivered his invited lecture at the technical conference in the session of “Latest Trends of Lead-free Soldering”. The lecture presents recent developments by the Nihon Superior Centre for the Manufacture of Electronic Materials (NS CMEM) within the University of Queensland, Australia. The work covered is based on peer-reviewed journal papers in the field of lead-free solders for advanced micro electronic applications.

Web page of 43rd Internepcon Japan Technical Conference:

https://www.r-exhibit.jp/exhibit201401/Conference201401/seminar_detail.aspx?htVal=%7B"l":"1","ses":"INJ-1","m":"INJ","k":2%7D

2. Best 1st Year Presentation in Mechanical and Mining Engineering, “Mg-Ni alloys with trace element modification”, UQ-EAIT Engineering Postgraduate Research Conference, 11th June 2014.

(Mr. Xuan Quy Tran, PhD student)

Xuan Tran who was one of 117 participants in the University of Queensland Engineering Architecture and IT Faculty Conference for Postgraduate Students, was awarded the prize for Best 1st Year Presentation in Mechanical and Mining Engineering. Xuan was presenting work from his PhD research being conducted in collaboration with Hydrexia Pty Ltd under the supervision of Chief Investigator, Associate Professor, Kazuhiro Nogita and Dr Stuart McDonald. UQ’s annual Postgraduate Student Conference was established six years ago. Students are invited to present their research findings to academics, industry partners and their peers. In addition to providing a forum for students to share and demonstrate their efforts, the conferences give students critical experience in communicating their research, allowing them to build confidence in this important skill. Students are judged by a panel of UQ academics, with prizes awarded at the end of the event in a number of different categories.

Mr Xuan Tran’s presentation at AEB auditorium of the UQ-EAIT Engineering Postgraduate Research Conference (YouTube: https://youtu.be/M9GbUYOQPRY).

3. Keynote Speech, “Advanced characterisation techniques for material development”, 3rd Int. Conf. on Advanced Material Engineering and Technology (ICAMET 2014), Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 4-6 December (2014).

(Dr. Kazuhiro Nogita, Director)

The International Conference on Advanced Material Engineering & Technology (ICAMET) is the premier forum for the presentation of new advances and research results in the fields of Advanced Material Engineering and Technology. The conference delegates included, engineers and scientists in the domain of interest from around the world. The keynote presentation provided an overview of how advanced characterisation approaches, such as Synchrotron X-ray radiation facilities and high voltage transmission electron microscopies, can be used in the development of materials for energy storage and electronic applications. The following three practical/experimental advanced approaches were discussed along with their use in international collaborative projects, (1) Synchrotron X-ray diffraction (In-situ powder diffraction and In-situ plate diffraction for solder joint intermetallics, phase stability and thermal expansion characterisation) at the Australian Synchrotron, (2) Synchrotron X-ray imaging (Micro-XRF mapping and in-situ soldering for the formation and trace element distributions in the solder joint intermetallics) at the SPring-8 synchrotron, and (3) Ultra-high voltage transmission electron microscopy (In-situ heating observation for hydrogen release behavior from bulk grains) at Kyushu University.

ICAMET2014 conference venue, Duxton Hotel, Ho-Chi-Minh City.

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Research Program Content and Highlights

2016

1. Microstructure formation in reinforced Sn-Cu lead-free solder alloys

(Dr Mohd Arif Anuar Mohd Salleh’s PhD thesis awarded in 2016)

Electronics manufacturers are pushing the limits in reducing the physical size of circuitry while simultaneously increasing the number of transistors to satisfy Moore’s Law. This includes investing in new materials, and configuring new ways to manufacture complex 3D (three dimensional) electronic packaging. One key requirement of new materials and techniques is ensuring the high reliability of the resultant products in various challenging operating environments including thermal and mechanical extremes. A viable method to enhance the properties and performance of a solder joint is by incorporation of reinforcement particles to the solder matrix, either by intrinsic or extrinsic methods. In this thesis a series of Sn-Cu Pb-free solder alloys with extrinsic or intrinsic phase reinforcement were manufactured and the microstructure and soldering behavior were investigated in detail. Additions of extrinsic reinforcement in the form of nano-sized ceramic material were made using a microwave sintering powder metallurgy (PM) method, which is a promising method to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of Pb-free solder materials. In addition, the advanced processing routes ensures a homogenous distributions of reinforcement particles is present. To investigate the performance of the reinforced bulk solders including thermal and mechanical properties and relate this to the microstructure, samples were investigated using techniques such as synchrotron micro-XRF, HRTEM, SEM, XPS, dilatometery, DSC and shear and microhardness testing. A hypothesis of how reinforcement improves solder properties is developed and discussed. Synchrotron X-ray radiography imaging (SXRI) was used to analyse the development of microstructure and the complex interactions occurring in the solders. Based on the superior properties of the fabricated solder, the microwave sintering PM route was discussed as a promising method for the reinforcement of Pb-free solders. The initial formation of interfacial IMC products was studied in Sn-Cu based solder alloys by in situ experiment techniques such as SXRI and UHV-TEM. The results provide direct experimental evidence of real-time initial Cu6Sn5 layer development during soldering and also the stress creation and release events that arise due to the polymorphic transformations of the Cu6Sn5 phase and the associated volumetric change. In addition, the nucleation and growth behavior of primary intermetallics which can be considered an intrinsic reinforcing material in solder joints was studied. Here, the nucleation and growth behavior of primary Cu6Sn5 and β-Sn crystals in some of the most commonly used solder alloys including Sn-0.7Cu and Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu is explained. This also includes the effects of Ni additions for refining primary Cu6Sn5 in Sn-Cu solder joints. Using SXRI, observations were made during solder joint solidification, which is impossible using conventional methods. The initial nucleation and solidification kinetics of primary Cu6Sn5 crystals were discussed.

In understanding the effect of electronic component assembly processes, the growth of primary and interfacial Cu6Sn5 intermetallics after multiple reflow and annealing the effect of this growth on the solder joint shear strength was studied. The collective results of this thesis demonstrate a detailed understanding of the manufacture of reinforced Sn-Cu Pb-free solder alloys and the mechanism of microstructure formation. The results are of significance scientifically and have industrial relevance and implications in controlling the microstructure and improving the performance and reliability of Pb-free solder joints.

PhD thesis

2. Crystallographic observations during in-situ heating/cooling of solder joints using UHV-TEM

(Ms Flora Somidin’s PhD project)

Previously at Kushyu University, we have performed in situ UHV-TEM observations of Cu6Sn5 polymorphic transformations in the reaction layer between Sn-0.7 wt.%Cu solders and Cu substrate from room temperature to 210°C. The experiment was done to observe the polymorphic phase transformation and stress accumulation and release in Cu6Sn5 during heating/cooling between room temperature and 210°C. The experiment was successful and the report has been published inthe Journal of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) [K. Nogita, M. A. A. Mohd Salleh, E. Tanaka, G. Zeng, S. D. McDonald, S. Matsumura, “In-situ TEM observations of Cu6Sn5 polymorphic transformations in reaction layers between Sn-0.7Cu solders and Cu substrates”, JOM, 68, 11 (2016) 2871-2878]. In light of the previous findings, the current research aims to observe the phases Cu- Cu3Sn-(Cu,Ni)6Sn5/Cu6Sn5 in solder joints created between three solders, namely Sn-0.7Cu wt.%Cu (SC), Sn-3.0 wt.%Cu-0.5 wt.%Ag (SAC305) and Sn-0.7 wt.%Cu-0.05 wt.%Ni (SN100C) and Cu substrates. The current research also aims to characterise phase transformation kinetics during annealing of metastable alloys containing (Cu,Ni)3Sn/Cu)3Sn-(Cu,Ni)6Sn5/Cu6Sn5 intermetallic phases for TLP applications. Ms Somidin had stayed at Prof. Matsumura’s lab at Kyushu University from October to December 2016 to conduct in-situ heating/cooling solder joint observations by ultra-high voltage TEM.

Ms Somidin at Kyushu University for heating/cooling solder joint experiments by ultra-high voltage TEM.

 

2015

1. The development of Sn-Cu based reinforced composite lead-free solder using hybrid microwave sintering powder metallurgy fabrication methods

(Mr Mohd Arif Anuar Mohd Salleh’s PhD project)

The challenge of keeping pace with emerging microelectronic device technologies and current legislation on lead-free devices has become increasingly difficult and there is a need to increase solder joint reliability while limiting costs associated with manufacture. It is important for manufacturers and researchers to enhance the performance of current solders. One viable way of enhancing the performance and properties of solder and associated joints is to introduce a second phase to strengthen the solder matrix by dispersion hardening. This research study focuses on the development of lead-free composite solders using base eutectic solder systems with the addition of reinforcement materials and the use of microwave sintered powder metallurgy methods. The objectives in general are to develop a robust novel solder material and to understand in detail the performance of the microwave sintered reinforced bulk solder in isolation as well as in part of a soldered joint produced through reflow soldering techniques. Detailed analysis and experiments will be carried out using leading analytical tools and equipment such as DSC, SEM, EPMA, TEM, synchrotron micro-XRF and synchrotron x-radiography in-situ observation. Mr Salleh stayed at Dr Gourlay’s lab at Imperial College London from August to November 2015 to conduct data analysis obtained from SPring-8 in-situ soldering observations.

Mr Arif Salleh with Dr Christopher Gourlay at Imperial College London.

2. Mechanisms of hydrogen activation in Na-doped Mg-Ni alloys

(Mr Xuan Quy Tran’s PhD project)

There has been a growing interest in solid state hydrogen storage materials in the last two decades and this is currently a very active research area. A recent discovery using sodium doped magnesium nickel alloys has found potential application in economically competitive hydrogen storage systems. However, the underlying mechanisms of sodium in enhancing the hydrogen absorption/desorption kinetics are not well understood. This thesis aims to provide insights into the mechanisms of hydrogen absorption/desorption with respect to certain major contributing factors. These include the effect of sodium trace element modification, various gas impurities, surface oxides/hydroxides and other microstructural features. In particular, their roles on the sequence of phase transformations, favourable hydrogen diffusion pathways and rate limiting steps during the hydrogen absorption/desorption reactions will be determined. The current studies have provided an in-depth understanding of the dynamic response to hydrogen of the alloys. In light of these findings, it is suggested that future work using TEM will be carried out specifically focusing on the crystallographic features developed during hydrogen absorption/desorption i.e. the preferred orientation relationships between the constituent phases and the evolution of crystallographic defects at the interphases of eutectic Mg/primary Mg, Mg/MgH2 and Mg2Ni/Mg2NiH4.  Furthermore, the in-situ desorption of bulk Mg2Ni will be conducted using the Ultra High Voltage TEM coupled with DSC study while the use of synchrotron EXAFS will also be considered for a more complete understanding of the whole picture. Mr Tran had stayed at Prof. Matsumura’s lab at Kyushu University from November 2015 to January 2016 to conduct in-situ hydrogen release experiments by ultra-high voltage TEM.

 

Mr Tran at Kyushu University for hydrogen desorption experiments by ultra-high voltage TEM.

 

2014

1. Phase formation, transformation and stability in micro-alloyed Sn-based lead-free solder alloys and joints

(Dr Guang Zeng’s PhD project)

Solder is a key material in electronic packaging and serves as both an electrical and mechanical connection to other components. In the current manufacturing environment there is a trend towards higher area-density electronic packages and the adaptation of lead-free micro and nano-scale solder joints. Guang focused on the development of Sn-0.7wt.% Cu based lead-free solder alloys using a micro-alloying approach. In his research he used various techniques (structure and composition studies with synchrotron radiation techniques, electron microscopy and microanalysis, thermal analysis etc.) to thoroughly investigate the effect of micro-alloying on phase transformation phenomena. There is a particular focus on the effect of alloying additions on microstructure development during the liquid-solid transition and the phase transformation and stability of the dominant components, namely the Cu6Sn5 intermetallic and the parent Sn phase. Guang started his PhD candidature in July 2011 under the supervision of A/Prof. Kazuhiro Nogita and Dr. Stuart McDonald. He developed expertise in alloy design and advanced characterisation techniques, leading to 8 first-author papers published in leading international journals, including Acta Materialia, and 5 international conference presentations and the successful awarding of his PhD thesis.

Dr Guang Zeng at Australian Synchrotron Powder Diffraction beamline performing crystallographic characterisation of intermetallics.

2. The development of Sn-Cu based reinforced composite lead-free solder using hybrid microwave sintering powder metallurgy fabrication methods

(Mr Mohd Arif Anuar Mohd Salleh’s PhD project)

The challenge of keeping pace with emerging microelectronic device technologies and current legislation on lead-free devices has become increasingly difficult and there is a need to increase solder joint reliability while limiting costs associated with manufacture. It is important for manufacturers and researchers to enhance the performance of current solders. One viable way of enhancing the performance and properties of solder and associated joints is to introduce a second phase to strengthen the solder matrix by dispersion hardening. This research study focuses on the development of lead-free composite solders using base eutectic solder systems with the addition of reinforcement materials and the use of microwave sintered powder metallurgy methods. The objectives in general are to develop a robust novel solder material and to understand in detail the performance of the microwave sintered reinforced bulk solder in isolation as well as in part of a soldered joint produced through reflow soldering techniques. Detailed analysis and experiments will be carried out using leading analytical tools and equipment such as DSC, SEM, EPMA, TEM, synchrotron micro-XRF and synchrotron x-radiography in-situ observation.

Mr Arif Salleh undertaking in-situ soldering observation experiments at the SPring-8 synchrotron.

3. Mechanisms of hydrogen activation in Na-doped Mg-Ni alloys

(Mr Xuan Quy Tran’s PhD project)

There has been a growing interest in solid state hydrogen storage materials in the last two decades and this is currently a very active research area. A recent discovery using sodium doped magnesium nickel alloys has found potential application in economically competitive hydrogen storage systems. However, the underlying mechanisms of sodium in enhancing the hydrogen absorption/desorption kinetics are not well understood. This thesis aims to provide insights into the mechanisms of hydrogen absorption/desorption with respect to certain major contributing factors. These include the effect of sodium trace element modification, various gas impurities, surface oxides/hydroxides and other microstructural features. In particular, their roles on the sequence of phase transformations, favourable hydrogen diffusion pathways and rate limiting steps during the hydrogen absorption/desorption reactions will be determined. The current studies have provided an in-depth understanding of the dynamic response to hydrogen of the alloys. In light of these findings, it is suggested that future work using TEM will be carried out specifically focusing on the crystallographic features developed during hydrogen absorption/desorption i.e. the preferred orientation relationships between the constituent phases and the evolution of crystallographic defects at the interphases of eutectic Mg/primary Mg, Mg/MgH2 and Mg2Ni/Mg2NiH4.  Furthermore, the in-situ desorption of bulk Mg2Ni will be conducted using the Ultra High Voltage TEM coupled with DSC study while the use of synchrotron EXAFS will also be considered for a more complete understanding of the whole picture.

Mr Tran at Australian Synchrotron for hydrogen absorption experiments.

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Research Fundings
  1. (2017–2020) ARC Linkage Projects

  2. (2016–2019) Nihon Superior Co Ltd

  3. (2016–2017) UQ FirstLink Scheme

  4. (2016) Synchrotron Light Source Australia Pty Ltd

  5. (2016) Synchrotron Light Source Australia Pty Ltd

  6. (2016) Synchrotron Light Source Australia Pty Ltd

  7. (2016) Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation

  8. (2016) Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation

  9. (2016) Synchrotron Light Source Australia Pty Ltd

  10. (2015) International Synchrotron Access Program

  11. (2015) Australian Synchrotron Access Program

  12. (2015) Australian Synchrotron Access Program

  13. (2015) UQ Major Equipment and Infrastructure

  14. (2015) International Synchrotron Access Program

  15. (2014–2019) University of Wollongong

  16. (2014–2017) ARC Linkage Projects

  17. (2014–2017) Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology University

  18. (2014) Australian Synchrotron Access Program

  19. (2014) Australian Synchrotron Access Program

  20. (2014) International Synchrotron Access Program

  21. (2014) Australian Synchrotron Access Program

  22. (2014) Australian Synchrotron Access Program

  23. (2014) International Synchrotron Access Program

  24. (2013–2016) Nihon Superior Co Ltd

  25. (2013–2016) Hydrexia Pty Ltd

  26. (2013–2014) Australian Synchrotron Access Program

  27. (2013–2014) ARC Linkage Infrastructure, Equipment and Facilities

  28. (2013) Australian Synchrotron Research Program

  29. (2013) Australian Synchrotron Access Program

  30. (2012–2025) Nihon Superior Co Ltd

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Further Information